China Since 1978 — History

1949–1978 Historical Background

1978–1984 Reform

Four Cardinal Principles:

1984–1989 Reform Problems

1989–1992 Crisis to Recovery


“What is surprising under these circumstances is perhaps not so much how little has been achieved, but how much.”


Healthcare & Social Welfare


The importance of male children had deep ideological & material roots.

“The status of women has fallen in the countryside during the era of Deng Xiaoping.”

Foreign Relations I: Superpowers

By the time of Deng’s reforms the Chinese relationship to the two superpowers had reversed.

“The two biggest nightmares for them remained the overthrow of the Party and the disintegration of the country’s unity, both of which had happened in the world’s first long-lasting socialist state.”

Political Economic Commentary & Analysis.